Class-11 History Lesson-1 from the beginning of time Notes

History

Lesson-1 from beginning of time


Repetition notes

  • 56 million years ago, similar human beings emerged on the earth. Subsequently, many types of humans were born and extinct.
  • It is estimated that modern humans originated around 160,000 years ago.
  • The book On the Origin of Species, written by Charles Darwin, was published on 24 November 1859, in which it was argued that humans have evolved from animals. It has evolved from animals to its present form gradually.
  • Human fossils (Fossil), stone tools and cave paintings are major sources of the history of human development.
  • Species is a group of organisms whose males and females can produce children together and their children are also capable of breeding further.
  • Primates of mammals have been found in Asia and Africa. Hominoids emerged in this primate category 240 million years ago. Ape, ie Ape were included in this primate category.
  • 2.5 million years ago a large part of the earth was covered with snow. As a result, there was a wide difference in climate and vegetation ecology. The forests diminished and the grasslands spread over a wide planetarium. Along with this, Australopithicus gradually disappeared and other species evolved in its place. Homo is considered to be the oldest representative of this species.
  • Homo is a Latin word meaning man. It includes both men and women.
Homo-scientists have divided it into many species.
  • Homo havilis - tool maker
  • Homo erectus - standing upright
  • Homo sapiens - reflective humans
  • Fossils of Homo habilis have been found at a place called Omo in Ethiopia and Alduvai Gorge in Tanzania. These species were estimated to live up to 1 million years ago.
  • Homo neanderthalanis fossils have been found in Europe, West and Central Asia about 1,30,000 to 35,000 years ago while in Europe its fossils suddenly disappeared about 35,000 years ago.
  • The nomenclature of the fossils is interesting. They are named after the sites where these fossils are first found. Such fossils found in the Neander Valley are called Homo Neanderthalensis.
Undoubtedly, the Adivans used to collect their food in many ways like-
  1. Storage (Gathering),
  2. Hunting (Hunting),
  3. अपमार्जन (Scavenging)
  4. Fishing (Fishing) etc.
  • Altamira - This cave is in Spain . There are paintings on its roof.
  • Archaeologist - This is the scientist who studies human history by studying the remains found from excavations.
  • Homonids are members of a family called hominidae. Which includes human beings of all forms.

Features

  • Big brain
    • Standing upright
    • Walking with two feet
  • Two theories of the emergence of modern humans-
    • Regional Continuity Model Theory - Human originated at different places in many areas.
    • Principle of substitution - Human originated in Africa and spread from there to different areas.
  • Australopathicus- Latin language is made up of the word 'Austral' i.e. 'Southern' and Greek language 'Pithicus' i.e. 'Vanar'. Gave this name because in human form, many characteristics of his app (monkey) system remain intact.
  • We get to know their way of life from the things made by the Adimanavas. Excavations in places like Kilobe and Olorgesielli in Kenya have found thousands of surgical instruments and handicrafts, which are 700,000 to 5,00,000 years old.
  • In this sequence, the stove meeting is proof that fire control had been established during this period. Additionally, probably Australopithicus made the first stone tools. Presumably both men and women were skilled in making stone tools.
  • The oldest evidence of stitched clothing is around 21,000 years old. Simultaneously, the practice of carving on bone, horn, elephant's teeth or wood had also started.
  • Among living beings, man is the only creature who has used language for ideology. In addition, the unbroken relationship between spoken language and art cannot be denied. The reason is that both are powerful means of communication.
  • In its last phase, ie 10000 to 4500 years ago, humans learned to grow wild plants and domesticate animals. He also started farming at one place. Undoubtedly, human dependence on agriculture brought about a radical change in his life.
  • Even in the present era, hunter collecting societies exist in many parts of the world. Kung San living in Kalahari, Africa is a living proof of this society.
  • Communication and Language - Initially the use of verbal communication such as gesture or movement of hands, singing or muttering in hominid language. Man's speech started with the process of calling, in the beginning man used many sounds, slowly these sounds would have developed into language.
  • Construction of Tools - Early humans first showed their organizational skills and memory by building tools.
  • Hadja Jana Group - This is a small group of hunters and collectors.
  • Hunter collecting societies - These societies were engaged in hunting as well as economic activities, such as exchange and trade of small things found in the forests, etc.
  • The end of the ice age - about thirteen thousand years ago, the end of the last ice age brought many changes in humans, such as farming, animal husbandry etc.


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