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Class-11 History Lesson-1 from the beginning of time NCERT Question-Answer

History NCERT Question-Answer Lesson 1 from beginning of time Answer briefly 1.  Look at the diagram below showing the Positive Fe...

History

NCERT Question-Answer

Lesson 1 from beginning of time


Answer briefly

1. Look at the diagram below showing the Positive Feedback Mechanism. Can you list the inputs that helped in the manufacture of tools? What processes led to the creation of tools?
Answer - Positive feedback system
  1. The arrow marks pointing to a particular box appear to indicate the effects that caused a feature.
  2. Arrow marks pointing away from a box indicate how the sequence of development in the box affected other processes.
Early human species have been classified on the basis of their head size and jaw specificity. These characteristics must have developed with positive feedback system ie, achieving desired results.

The above positive feedback system diagram shows four important points in the manufacture of tools -
  1. They roamed for long distances in search of eyes, hunting and food.
  2. Development in the size and capacity of the brain.
  3. Stand upright and walk.
  4. Hands free (free) for the use of tools.
Learning the art of making tools was a great achievement of human. Along with this, many processes were encouraged which led to many benefits -
  1. With the construction of tools, the primitive humans were able to protect themselves from the dreaded wild animals, otherwise those animals would have been preyed upon.
  2. Farming and hunting became easier with the help of tools.
  3. With the help of tools, man learned to make pottery. The process of manufacturing azars really changed the standard of living or food of human.
  4. With the manufacture of tools, the dress of the primitive man improved and he used to wear the skins of animals. The needle was invented. Tools played an essential role in building a residence.
The earliest evidence of human making and using stone tools has been found from archaeological sites in Ethiopia and Kenya. It is believed that the first tools of stone must have been created and used by Australopathicus humans. It is possible that women have been making and using some special tools in the search of food for themselves and their children.

2. Some similarities are found in the behavior and anatomy of humans and mammals such as langurs and apes. This indicates that it is likely that the evolution of humans was from primates. Make two separate columns under (a) Behavior and (b) Anatomy headings and list those similarities. Mention the differences found between the two that you consider important?
Answer:  Some similarities are found in the behavior and anatomy of mammals such as humans and langur \ apes, indicating that the human has probably evolved gradually from apes. The following characteristics are found under behavior and anatomy.
  1. At the behavioral level -  'apes'is the organism of the" ape" (Ape) hominoid subgroup. The "hominid" class has evolved from the' hominoid "subgroup. There are quite a few similarities and different major differences. Hominoid brain. He was smaller than the hominid. He was four-footed, that is, he used to walk on all four legs. The forelimbs of his body and the next two legs were elastic. The hominids stood upright and walked on both legs. Hominid's hands Not the texture was the kind of special that they can create and use weapons (tools).
  2. At the level of anatomy - in  human form of its initial forms, its symptoms are still remaining. The primitive form of human has many characteristics of apes; As the brain was relatively small compared to Homo, previous teeth were bigger and special skills of hands and ability to stand upright did not have much, because he spent most of his time on trees. Because of living on trees, various characteristics are still present in it; Such as lengthening of front limbs, folding of bones of hands and feet and twisting of ankle joints. The early human species is divided on the basis of its head size and specificity of the jaw. Apes, langurs and humans etc. fall under the primate subgroup.

Similarities at physical level

  1. Both of these are creatures of the primate subgroup.
  2. Babies thrive in the mother's stomach for a relatively long time before they are born.
  3. Humans, apes and langurs all have hair on their bodies.
  4. The teeth of these creatures vary in their texture.
  5. Females have breast glands to feed the baby.

Similarities at practical level-

  1. Both humans and apes can stand on their hind legs.
  2. They are able to adapt their body to the state.
  3. It has more power to understand than other beings.
  4. Humans and apes carry their children and walk.

Differences found between man and ape

  1. The human walks on two legs but the monkey walks with four legs.
  2. Knowledge is more in humans, however it is very less in apes.
  3. The brain of a human is large in size whereas the jaw of apes is very long.
  4. A human can stand on his foot for a long time while a monkey cannot do it for a long time.

3. Discuss the arguments given in favor of the regional continuity model of human evolution. Do you think this model gives a reasonable explanation of archaeological evidence?
Off -  modern humans where the center of Udrarbv Where was his origin? Even today it is a complex problem to discover. Debate continues on this question even today. But to solve this problem, two opinions have emerged before us -
  1. Regional Continuity Model -  Man has originated in different places under this view. The development of Homo sapiens living in different regions as modern humans gradually took place at different pace. As a result, modern humans appeared in different forms in different places of the world.
  2. Substitution Model  - Under this view, humans originated in one place, in Africa. From there it gradually spread to many parts of the world. The regional continuity model provides convincing explanations of archaeological evidence. Modern human fossils found in various places in Ethiopia support this view. Following are the essential ideologies of the followers of this opinion -
1. Such scholars believe that more similarity is found in modern humans because their ancestors were born in the same region i.e. Africa and went to other places from there.
2. All the old forms of human beings, wherever they were, changed and were completely replaced by modern humans.
3. One argument of scholars is that the characteristics of today's humans are different, because there is a regional difference between them.
Because of the above variations, differences found in the Aractus and Homo Hydalbergesis communities already living in the same area are still located today.

4. Evidence and evidence of which of these actions are found most in the archaeological records - (a) collection, (b) making tools, (c) use of fire.
Off -  Storage (Gathering), Fire Use (The use of fire) tools and evidence of making (Tool making) the tools are the best way in the archaeological record. Ancient evidence of making and using stone tools has been found from research (discovery) sites in Ethiopia and Kenya.

It is expected that the use of these weapons and tools was the first in Australia. 
(Austrelopithecus) did. There is not as much evidence of collection and use of fire as there is for making tools. It is believed that both men and women made stone tools based on their use. It is believed that women used to refine and use certain types of tools for themselves and their children. The method of killing animals improved about 35,000 years ago. Evidence of this is found through the use of tools like throwing spears and arrows. Using the spear projector, the hunter was able to throw the javelin for a long distance. In this era, with the help of punch blade technique, stone tools would be manufactured as follows -
  1. The upper end of a large stone is removed with the help of a stone hammer.
  2. Then it is hit with the help of punch and hammer made of bone or horn.
  3. From this, a flat surface is formed which is called the hit platform.
  4. A sample of bone carving is given below.
  5. This creates a sharp bandage which can be used as a knife or they form a kind of chisels from which bone, horn, ivory or wood can be carved.
One of the first tools from Alduvai is a tool called Gandasa, whose scales have been removed and sharpened. This is a special kind of hand ax. Prehistoric times have been classified by human natural scientists into three parts with these primary tools. Which are as follows
  1. Palaeolithic period - In  this era, stone tools were rough, rough and without any carving etc. Rukhni, Gendase, Kuthar etc. are the main tools of this period.
  2. Middle Stone  Age - Stone tools were used in small forms in this era. Small type of tools are called Ashm. Among the tools of this era, spear and arrow-command are the main tools.
  3. Neolithic period or post-Stone  Age - The tools of this period were very clean, well worn and carved. The art of making tools by making bones and stones smooth and clean had developed in this era. The sickle is the main tool of this era.

Write essay in brief


5. How much use of language would have helped in the work of (a) hunting and (b) shelter? Discuss this. What other methods of communication could be used for these activities?
Answer -  It is known to all that among all living beings, only man is such an organism which uses language ear. The system of sound symbols is random language by which humans exchange their thoughts. Many scholars differ on the development of language. His beliefs are as follows
  1. Havo or gesture (shaking or moving of hands), was included in the hominid language.
  2. Man's speaking ability developed or started with the call of action or calling as is often seen in male-apes.
  3. Oral or non-verbal communication such as singing or humming was used before the spoken language.
There is no clear evidence in terms of the origin of the spoken language. According to scholars, Homo Habilis had certain characteristics in his brain that would have enabled him to speak. In this way, the language probably developed 20 million years ago. Language development (about 200,000 years ago) and brain changes aided language development. The relation of language and art is close. Along with language, art developed around 40000–35000 years ago. Both art and language are strong means of communication.
Hundreds of animal paintings have been found in the caves of Lascaux and Chauvet in France and in the cave of Altamira in northern Spain, which were painted 30,000 to 12,000 years ago. Among these are the pictures of gaurs (wild bulls), ghoghas, hill saakins (goats), deer, mammoths, rhinos, lions, bears, cheetahs, hyena and owls.

Hunting was more important in the life of early humans. For this reason, paintings of animals were associated with religious activities, rituals and sorcery. It also appears that painting was done to perform rituals that would lead to success in hunting.

Scholars also believe that these caves were the sites of early humans meeting together where small groups met each other or gathered together to carry out group activities. It is also known that these groups have been planning together in these caves and discussing the techniques of hunting, and these paintings were made for the future generations to gain knowledge from these techniques. Therefore, it can be said that painting has been used as a powerful medium of communication.

The details that are given about the early society are mostly based on archaeological evidence. Even today, in many parts of the world, hunting and food gathering and gathering societies exist. In all these societies the Hadja group is considered to be the main one.

Along with the introduction of agriculture, humans started building their huts near the fields. Initially man used to build huts with the help of wood and husbands etc., but after that he also started using raw and fired bricks to build houses. The remains of the ancient huts were found in a lake in Switzerland in 1854.

Creating a permanent residence was a great achievement of man and it was impossible without the development of language, but language made all these activities possible. Initially human would have undoubtedly used very few sounds, but these sounds would have developed into language later. Therefore, the development of language is an interesting aspect of modern human development.

6. Choose any two events from the chronology given at the end of the chapter and indicate what is its significance.
Answer - The  following is a description of two events in chronological order.
  1. Australopithecus - The  word Australopithecus is derived from the Latin language 'Austral' meaning 'Southern' and the Greek word 'Pithicus' i.e. 'apes'. Australopathicus initially had various characteristics of apes. 56 lakh years ago, its time is considered. Australopithicus is called the first man. They were found in East Africa and could stand as human beings. They used stone tools and lived animal life and as food, they also ate wild insects.
  2. Homo - The  word "Homo" is from the Latin language. It means - human. Homo includes both men and women. Scientists have classified various species of Homo based on their specialties, which are as follows
    ( a) Homo habilis (Homo habilis) -These tools blower were human.
    (b)  Homo erectus (Homo erectus) - These were the human walk standing straight.
    (c) Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens) -These reflective, prudent or Modern human Were.
Fossils of Homo habilis are derived from Omo in Ethiopia and Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.

Homo actress fossils were found in Africa's Koobi Fora and West Turkan deT Kenya (Kenya) and in Java's Mod Jokerto and Sangiran. Homo sapiens, called modern humans, are contemplative or intelligent beings. Homo sapiens are from 1.9 lakh years to 1.6 lakh years ago.
The following is a description of two events out of chronological order -
  1. First Evidence of the practice of burial  is at 300,000 years ago, we first evidence of ritual burial. In some ways, it is known that Neanderthalansis buried human bodies. From this it appears that they believed in some religion. From the discoveries made at the site of the cemetery of the Neanderthalansis period, it is also known that they decorated the bodies of the dead with colors. They probably did so for religious reasons or beauty. He was the first person to think about life after death.
  1. The abolition of Neanderthal humans - Neanderthal humans  lived in Europe and Western and Central Asia from about 130,000 to 35,000 years ago. But 35,000 years ago they suddenly disappeared. Different scientists have different views about the Neanderthal human extinction. Their ideologies are as follows:
    (a) Neanderthal humans were killed by Homo sapiens.
    (B) Neanderthal Manav married other groups and their separate identity of caste ended. All these theories are imaginary. No scholar can say with certainty when and why this caste ended

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